Conquest of England and the Harrying of the North. Note 2 However, modern historians are now beginning to reject this conceptualization of Scottish origins. In 945, king Mel Coluim I received Strathclyde as part of a deal with King Edmund of England, an event offset somewhat by Mel Coluim's loss of control in Moray. Another revolt in 1187 was equally unsuccessful. In the ninth century the term mormaer, meaning "great steward began to appear in the records to describe the rulers of Moray, Strathearn, Buchan, Angus and Mearns, who may have acted as "marcher lords" for the kingdom to counter the Viking threat.
11501300 Steve Boardman and Alasdair Ross (eds.) The Exercise of Power in Medieval Scotland,., (Dublin/Portland, 2003). 60 Scottish control of Lothian was genes Personal Turmoil in Knowles A Separate Peace strengthened with Mel Coluim II's victory over the Northumbrians at the Battle of Carham (1018). 172176; text translated by Anderson (1922) vol. In the late 13th century, a Venetian explorer named Marco Polo became one of the first Europeans to travel the Silk Road to China. 47 Magnus Barelegs is said to have "subdued the people of Galloway" 48 in the eleventh century and Whithorn seems to have been a centre of Hiberno-Norse artisans who traded around the Irish Sea by the end of the first millennium. Gerald of Wales, Topographia Hibernica, III. Broun, Dauvit, "Gaelic Literacy in Eastern Scotland between 11" in Huw Pryce (ed.