in languages other than Latin Abernethy continued. At this time, there was a tremendous increase in the number of rich individuals with disposable income that supported a luxurious lifestyle of leisure and arts. 13 Lorenzo Valla, however, puts a defense of epicureanism in the mouth of one of the interlocutors of one of his dialogues. Another aspect of humanism during the Renaissance was that people were concerned about the present, and not so much about their afterlife. "Humanism created an atmosphere that gave rise to different movements and sects Martin Luther stressed reform of the Catholic Church, wanting to eliminate practices such as nepotism and the selling of indulgences Abernethy said. "Renaissance Idea of the Dignity of Man". By Jacob Zeitlin (1924, reprinted 1978 On His Own Ignorance and That of Many Others, trans. 5 These subjects came to be known as the humanities, and the movement which they inspired is shown as humanism. "Byzantines in the Florentine Polis: Ideology, Statecraft and Ritual during the Council of Florence". Oberman and Thomas.
William Harrison Woodward,. They revived Petracrhs love poetry wherein the lover suffers a lot at the hands of his beloved.
Four River Valley Civilizations, Niccolo Machiavelli and Renaissance Italy,
In France, pre-eminent humanist Guillaume Bud (14671540) applied the philological methods of Italian humanism to the study of antique coinage and to legal history, composing a detailed commentary on Justinian's Code. Having money became more important than your allegiances. Humanism and the Culture of Renaissance Europe (New Approaches to European History). Harvard University Press, 2009 isbn Hale, John. Ed (1958; reissued with a new bibliography, 1969; originally published in German, 1942,. Many worked for the Catholic Church and were in holy orders, like Petrarch, while others were lawyers and chancellors of Italian cities, and thus had access to book copying workshops, the Educational Disparity such as Petrarch's disciple Salutati, the Chancellor of Florence. With the Counter Reformation initiated by the Council of Trent (1545-1563 positions hardened and a strict Catholic orthodoxy based on Scholastic philosophy was imposed. During the Renaissance humanistic attitudes and cultural productions consisted of; the rediscovery of classical sources, freedom of the individual, a new concern for the present instead of the life after death, and the new discovered pleasure of classical literature and books.
The History of Civilizations and Humankind
Issues in Western Civilization
The Ancient Civilization
Ideology, History and Classical Social Theory