biopsy; 92 complied, and.6 of the 15,685 men screened were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The possible contribution of routine annual screening by rectal examination in reducing prostate cancer mortality remains to be determined. Pubmed Abstract Godtman RA, Holmberg E, Khatami A,.: Long-term Results of Active Surveillance in the Göteborg Randomized, Population-based Prostate Cancer Screening Trial. Scand J Urol Nephrol 25 (2 111-4, 1991. Of the prostate cancers detected by digital rectal exam (DRE) in the prePSA screening era, 67 to 88 were at a clinically localized stage (T12, NX, M0 T tumor size, N lymph node involvement, and M metastasis). Urology 52 (2 195-201; discussion 201-2, 1998. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3 CD001431, 2001.
Control Clin Trials 21 (6 Suppl 273S-309S, 2000. Using a threshold value of 60, this test enhances the detection of prostate cancer while reducing the number of biopsies in men who are expected to ultimately have a negative biopsy. The data at 10 years were 67 complete and consistent with these overall findings (incidence ratio rate,.17; 95 CI,.111.22 and mortality ratio rate,.11; 95 CI,.831.50). An unintended consequence of screening and biopsy is the erroneous assumption that a screened population is at increased risk of developing significant disease.
Limitations of the CAP trial include the following: 43 The intervention was only a single round of PSA testing. No more than two positive biopsy cores. 47 Both methods and conclusions are prone to bias conclusions and have been criticized by several groups of scientists.
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The same review of evidence found hormone therapy with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (lhrh) agonists reduces sexual function by 40 to 70, and is associated with breast swelling in 5 to 25 of men. The report suggests that mortality outcomes from the erspc (2- and 4-year intervals) and plco (1-year interval relative to opportunistic screening) trials should facilitate a more reliable assessment of the benefits and costs of different screening intervals. J Urol 175 (4 1286-90; discussion 1290, 2006. 15 Men with a family history of prostate cancer are at an increased risk of the disease compared with men without this history. Pubmed Abstract Wajsman Z, Chu TM: Detection and diagnosis of prostatic cancer. Pubmed Abstract Aus G, Ahlgren G, Bergdahl soviet Victory Over The Nazis S,.: Infection after transrectal core biopsies of the prostate-risk factors and antibiotic prophylaxis. Data from 577 men diagnosed with prostate cancer as a consequence of periodic screening between 19t a mean age.3 years in four participating clinical centers in the Netherlands, Sweden, and Finland were evaluated. Also, in the first 3 months after diagnosis, the SMR for suicide was higher in men with prostate cancer (SMR,.9; 95 CI,.42.6).
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