SAPs in Southern Africa The results of SAPs in Southern Africa were similar to those of the programmes elsewhere. Urban infant mortality rates range from 8-9 percentage points lower than the rural rates in Latin America and Central Asia; to 10-16 percentage points in the Middle East and North Africa, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa and highest in East Asia (21 percentage points). In South Asia, 60 percent of urban dwellers have access to sanitation facilities, compared with 28 percent in rural areas. Developing countries that had taken out loans with US banks now had to pay huge interests. Due to currency devaluations the real foreign exchange value of exports in Zimbabwe declined by 2,7 a year while it had grown by 9 before SAPs were introduced. South African companies were unable to produce goods as cheaply or at the same quality as competitors from South-East Asia and had to close down. The rolled back some of the achievements made by African states in the post-colonial era (see Goncalves: 6-8).
Holdens Immaturity Twoard the Adult world, Indonesia and World Energy Markets,
Despite the fact that developing countries have long paid back their initial loans, they are still highly indebted and are dependent on new loans. Since the early 1990s 130 companies were liquidated and a process of de-industrialisation is underway in a country that once had a relatively self-contained and integrated economy (Saunders: 8-11). With over 80 percent of global goods and services produced in cities, countries with relatively higher levels of urbanization, such as China, and many others in East Asia and Latin America, have played a major role in lowering extreme poverty1 worldwide. In Namibia, the government is still spending a large portion of the national budget on social services like education and health, but there are signs that cuts are imminent. Despite opposition from the labour movement, the South African government seems to follow the demands of national and international capital to speed up the process of privatisation. According to Mozambiques trade union federation OTM, of the 502 companies which were privatised since 1989 only 25 are still operational and 37 000 workers have been retrenched (Goncalves: 6). Though extreme poverty has declined rapidly in many countries, the World Bank estimates that by 2015 there will be 970 million people living.25 a day. So far, the harshest effects of trade liberalisation are experienced by workers in South Africas clothing and textiles industry. This debt crisis has its origin in the early 1970s when oil-producing countries that had united in the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (opec) increased the oil price to gain additional revenue. SAPs as a part of the broader process of globalisation have increased the manoeuvring space for Transnational Corporations to an unprecedented level. This poses a serious threat for the countrys food self-sufficiency.
Corruption: a Worldly Problem, Discussions of World War II, An Overview of the Changing World of Women, Money and Banking,