of Ottavio Piccolomini. Now, it was agreed that the citizenry of a respective nation were subjected first and foremost to the laws and whims of their own respective government rather than to those of other entities, be they religious or secular. Almost at the time of his declaration, war was also proclaimed by Ferdinand and Philip IV (May, 1635). The estates hoped that these two countries would consent not to interfere in the internal affairs of the empire, especially as regards religion. The assembly at Mülhausen already demanded a change in the military organization and the dismissal of Wallenstein. After this Ferdinand's troops besieged Mantua and the Spaniards under Spinola besieged Casale. The population's sentiments notwithstanding, the added insult of the nobility's rejection of Ferdinand, who had been elected Bohemian Crown Prince in 1617, triggered the Thirty Years' War in 1618, when his representatives were thrown out of a window and seriously injured. The strength of the Swedish forces had been declining throughout the year 1632.
Thirty, years War : Definition and Causes
Glorification of war,
Spain and to Kill a Mockingbird: Classic Novel Poland also sent troops. In 1623 for the first time a Catholic was elected bishop in the Diocese of Osnabrück. The only exceptions to this rule were the imperial free cities, where both Lutherans and Catholics were to enjoy freedom of worship, and the Catholic ecclesiastical states, where bishops and abbots who wished to become Lutherans were obliged to resign first. However, the war in the Palatinate continued: Famous mercenary leaders such as, particularly, Count Ernst von Mansfeld 32 helped Frederick V to defend his countries, the Upper and the Rhine Palatinate. In pursuance of the scheme the Spaniards were now to appear with a fleet in the Baltic so as to enable Wallenstein to gain the supremacy at sea. Richelieu at once sent aid to the rebels. These views probably influenced his military decisions after the battle of Breitenfeld.