to breathe, especially asthma patients. Nevertheless, it can be the primary pathway for acid deposition in areas with heavy precipitation. These clouds and fog are often more acidic than rainfall. Several regions in the United States contain many of the surface waters sensitive to acidification. Uncertainties can be removed or reduced by a suitably directed research program. Acid rain is produced when chemical pollutants interact with sunlight to produce sulfuric and nitric acids. The SO 2 emission reduction program employs a two-phase cap-and-trade approach to reduce total annual SO 2 emissions by 10 million tons below 1980 levels by 2010 (roughly a 40-percent reduction in total emissions).
Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan testified before Congress on acid rain. Some types of plants and animals are able to tolerate acidic waters and moderate amounts of aluminum. If something harms one part of an ecosystem one species of plant or animal, the soil or the water it can have an impact on everything else. The more acid that is introduced to the ecosystem, the more aluminum is released. Dry deposition is the primary acid deposition pathway in arid regions of the West, such as Joshua Tree National Park. Even if the soil is well buffered, there can be damage from acid rain.
"Atmospheric Deposition of Nutrients and Pollutants in North America: An Ecological Perspective." Ecological Applications 4,. Effectiveness of the Acid Rain Program In terms of SO 2 emissions reductions, the results of the Acid Rain Program have been dramaticand unprecedented. Not all fish, shellfish, or the insects that they eat can tolerate the same amount of acid. The benefits, however, may be offset by toxic effects associated with the release of aluminum and magnesium from clay minerals if the pH of soils falls below about.5. "Acid Rain Impacts on Calcium Nutrition and Forest Health." Bioscience 49 (October 1999 789800.
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Fish die off, and that removes the main source of food for birds; also contaminating the lake water. For example, frogs are better able than trout to tolerate somewhat acidified water. "Long-Term Effects ofAcid Rain: Response and Recovery of a Forest Ecosystem." Science 272 (12 Apr. Wet deposition is intermittent because acids reach the Earth only when precipitation falls. Also, birds can die from eating "toxic" fish and insects. These particles and ozone make the air hazy and difficult to see through. Hence, reductions in pH due to human-induced acid rain create an imbalance in the chemistry and ultimately the entire ecosystem of a lake or stream. These reductions were an average of 25 percent below required emission levels, resulting in early achievement of human health and environmental benefits. 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments: Title IV In 1990, the.S. Environmental Protection Agency starting in 1995, the program consists of two major components. Without buffering capacity, soil pH would change rapidly. It is clear that the chemistry of the troposphere, both polluted and clean, should receive attention in this effort.
Acid rain - Wikipedia
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