the Art of Persuasion in Julius Caesar

: citing Philostratus,. 57 Ordinary citizens could circumvent the complex, hierarchic bureaucracy of the State, and appeal directly to the emperor, as if to a private citizen. A b Taylor,. Roman military, Senate and people, and to maintain peace, security and prosperity throughout an ethnically diverse empire. The cities of Ionia worshipped the Spartan general Lysander, when he personally dominated Greece, immediately following the Peloponnesian War ; according to Plutarch, this was the first instance of ruler cult in features of Magic in The Castle of Otranto Greek history. This required only the willingness of barbarian elites to "Romanise" themselves and their communities. At the very beginning of his reign, before his Tetrarchy, Diocletian had adopted the signum of Jovius ; his co-Augustus adopted the title Herculius. 125 Though evidence for private emperor worship is as sparse in this era as in all others, Fronto's letters imply the genius cult of the living emperor as an official, domestic and personal practice, probably more common than cult to the divi in this and.

200 201 A winged genius raises Antoninus Pius and his Empress Faustina in apotheosis, escorted by two eagles. Priests typically and respectfully identified their function by manifesting the appearance and other properties of their deus. A b Momigliano, 104. Both authors idolize their general, defending his actions with even greater tenacity than he does himself, but we also get details Caesar would surely never have advertised, including massacres of other Roman citizens, more hand amputations, and a bizarre account of a temporary camp built.

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From the column-base of Antoninus Pius, Vatican. Nevertheless, cult offered to divus Julius implies loyalty to his adopted son and heir. 121 In Rome itself he was also theos on two of three surviving inscriptions but was more closely associated with hero-cult, which allowed direct appeals for his intercession with "higher gods". The above preview is unformatted text. 149 After little more than a year, he was murdered in a coup and replaced with an emperor of Syrian background and Severan descent, Varius Avitus Bassianus, more usually known by the Latinised name of his god and his priesthood, Elagabalus. This proved a useful instrument.