that McCleskey presents a viable equal protection claim does not require that he demonstrate intentional racial discrimination to establish his Eighth Amendment claim. A b Pettit, Becky; Western, Bruce. Population but 19 percent of prisoners in the Quebec Referendum of 1991 state and federal prisons.15 Recent studies show that African, Hispanic, and Native Americans are often treated more harshly than other citizens in their encounters with the criminal justice system (including police activity, the handling of juvenile defendants, and. It also notes that the Baldus study found that prosecutors sought the death penalty in 70 of the cases involving black defendants and white victims; 32 of the cases involving white defendants and white victims; 15 of the cases involving black defendants and black victims;. Since our decision upholding the Georgia capital sentencing system in Gregg, the State has executed seven persons. In disposing of cases, juvenile courts usually have far more discretion than adult courts. Implementation of these laws necessarily requires discretionary judgments.
A b Cooper, Alexia.; Smith, Erica. McCleskey's attitude was that he didn't want to enter a plea.
Hume and justice
Collective Intelligence - Based on the ants system
McCleskey demonstrated this effect at both the statewide level, see Supp. They then analyzed the data in a manner that would permit them to ascertain the independent effect of the racial factors. In the modern world, laws are typically created and enforced by governments. In venire-selection cases, the factors that may be considered are limited, usually by state statute. Thus, if we accepted McCleskey's claim that racial bias has impermissibly tainted the capital sentencing decision, we could soon be faced with similar claims as to other types of penalty. If a Black male dropped out of high school, he had an over 50 chance of being incarcerated in his lifetime, as compared to an 11 chance for White male high school dropouts. But as a matter of practice, penalty hearings seem to be held only if the prosecutor affirmatively seeks the death penalty. "High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political Activities Understanding Policing. Fouche, supra, at 354 (jury commissioners may exclude any an Argument for Legalization of Marijuana not "upright" and "intelligent" from grand jury service Whitus. No guidelines govern prosecutorial decisions to seek the death penalty, and Georgia provides juries with no list of aggravating and mitigating factors, nor any standard for balancing them against one another. These authors found that, in close cases in which jurors were most often in disagreement, the closeness of the evidence makes it possible for the jury to respond to sentiment by liberating it from the discipline of the evidence.
Corporal Punishment: Must Be Tolerated or Not?
Sources of capital to finance ship purchases